The importance of engine oil
Engine oil hangs on the entire moving parts of the engine and forms a thin film-like layer. It reduces friction and wear, which makes movement easier, reduces friction loss and gives the wheels more performance. Engine oil helps to clean the engine with the cleaning agents it contains, protects against rust and also helps to reduce the excess heat around the cylinders to the sump.
It is made by adding the necessary additive packages to the base oils obtained by refining the bottom product obtained by distilling the crude oil. The prices are usually cheap and offer average performance.
It is manufactured by adding necessary additive packages to synthetic base oils, which are obtained through various chemical processes under laboratory conditions. Synthetic base oil, which is the raw material for synthetic oils, is made with advanced technology through intensive processes, and its cost is high. However, they offer better performance and longer use. Your thermal resistance is high. They perform their lubrication tasks over long periods of time and are more resistant to high pressure and loads at higher and lower temperatures.
Viscosity and Viscosity Index
The viscosity is simply a measure of the thickness of an oil. The viscosity index is also used to show how liquid oil is at a certain temperature. When an oil is thick it generally has a high viscosity and when it is thin it has a low viscosity. The viscosity index shows us how much an oil becomes thinner when exposed to heat. The higher the number, the less thin the oil is when exposed to heat. If the number is low, the oil has a low viscosity, if it is high, the viscosity is high. The viscosity index also shows how an oil behaves under certain conditions. A very high viscosity oil (e.g. 50) may not reach certain parts of the engine, especially at low temperatures, and even the film between the cylinder and the engine can break at high speeds. If it is an oil with a very low viscosity (example: 0), it can lose its protective function, especially at extremely high temperatures.
What are the properties of single-viscosity and multi-viscosity oils?
The oils are divided into two parts based on the temperature range they serve: oils with one viscosity and with multiple viscosities (with multiple viscosities). Viscous oils are suitable for situations in which the air temperatures are constant. Therefore, such oils are not suitable for both summer and winter use (example: only 10 W, not 15 W-40). Multi-viscous oils can be used under variable weather conditions. They can be used both in the summer heat and in the winter cold. A thick oil gels in cold weather and cannot do its job completely. A thin oil flows comfortably in the cold, but at high temperatures the film between the engine and cylinder becomes thinner or breaks. Because of these disadvantages of single-viscosity oils, multi-viscosity oils have been produced by adding different polymers to a single-viscosity oil with a thin base. Thanks to these added polymers, multi-viscous oils are thin enough to work in the winter cold or when starting for the first time, and thick enough to count in the summer heat.
Advantage of multi-viscosity oils compared to single-quality oils
The flowability of a viscous oil is the same at any temperature. In contrast to single-viscosity oils, multi-viscosity oils adapt to changing temperatures. A multi-viscosity oil is more fluid in cold weather than a single-viscosity oil and definitely thicker and safer at higher temperatures. Multi-viscous oils save between 1.5% and 3% fuel compared to single-viscosity oils. Multi-viscous oils offer more protection at both low and high temperatures.
Differences in oils such as 0W / 30, 5W / 30 and 15W / 40, 20W / 50 oils in terms of viscosity
The suitability of the viscosity of the oil varies depending on the place of use. Depending on the speed and technology of the engine, it is necessary to circulate the oil and lightly lubricate each point with a very thin oil such as 0W / 30. Oils like 15 W / 40, 20 W / 50 are used in hot climates with engine technology with lower speed because they have a high viscosity. Synthetic oils such as 0W / 30, 5W / 30, 10W / 40, which are long-lasting motor oils, are much longer-lasting today than mineral oils such as 15W40, 20W / 50. What is the oil performance class? How to Understand You can understand the performance class based on the SAE, API and ACEA values on the label on the back of the packages.
SAE classification (Society of Automotive Engineers)
Unlike others, the SAE classification classifies the oil according to its viscosity at low and high temperatures, so it can be said that it is a little more detailed. The grade in the SAE classification consists of two numbers separated by the letter W. W means winter, which means winter, and indicates the low-temperature viscosity of the oil. For example like 15W in 15W-40. This is also the basic viscosity of the oil, ie the actual viscosity before the polymer is added. Since the oil is thinner the lower this number, this also shows how fluid the oil is at low temperatures and how easily the engine starts. The second number indicates the high heat viscosity of the oil. Like 40 in 15W-40. The higher this number, the more viscous the oil is when it is hot, meaning it is thick. API classification (American Petroleum Institute) The classification is made with two letters. The first letter indicates whether the oil is suitable for gasoline (S) or diesel (C) engines, and the second letter shows the performance value of the oil in the same group. The performance classification is between A-J for petrol engines and C-F for diesel engines, with A being lowest in both groups. For petrol engines: (min. Output) SA..SB..SC..SD..SE..SF..SG..SH..SJ (max. Output) For diesel engines: (min. Output) CA..CB ..CC..CD..CE..CF (max. Power) ACEA (Association of European Automobile Manufacturers) Classification The classification is made with a number after a letter (like A3). The ACEA standard is divided into two categories. The first category describes which engine oil can be used: A for petrol engines A for diesel engines B for diesel truck engines C The performance of the oil is determined by the following figure: For fuel consumption 1 For general purposes (average level) 2 For high performance 3 For example, A3 gasoline defines a high-performance oil for engines and a saving oil for A1 gasoline engines.
Why is there a price difference between oils of the same viscosity?
The quality of the base oil can vary in price, depending on the additive packaging used in accordance with the SAE, API or ACEA performance class and its quantities.
Why does the engine reduce the oil?
The main cause of oil loss is related to the technology of the engine. The new technology minimizes the gaps between the metals, making the engine more compact and powerful. As a result, fat loss decreases. For other reasons, this is an example of not selecting an oil that is suitable for the performance and viscosity values recommended in the vehicle introduction books, the engine is used continuously at high speeds, the engine life is shortened, or a mechanical fault occurs.
In the event of oil loss, will the engine be damaged by adding different oil brands?
In mandatory cases, different oil brands of the same viscosity class and API class can be added. It is important to ensure that mineral oil and synthetic oil are not mixed together. Otherwise, the chemical structure of the oil can deteriorate and the engine protection can be reduced even if the engine is not suddenly or directly damaged. This method is a temporary one and it is recommended to change the oil completely as soon as possible.